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Archives of Microbiology

Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 198, Issue6 , pp 573–583 | Cite as

First Online: 12 April 2016
Received:
Revised:
Accepted:

Abstract

Periodontal diseases are infectious polymicrobial inflammatory diseases that lead to destruction of the periodontal ligament, gingiva, and alveolar bone. Sequential colonization of a broad range of bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis , is an important phenomenon in this disease model. F. nucleatum is a facultative anaerobic species thought to be a key mediator of dental plaque maturation due to its extensive coaggregation with other oral bacteria, while P. gingivalis is an obligate anaerobic species that induces gingival inflammation by secreting various virulence factors. The formation of a bacterial complex by these two species is central to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced during bacterial infections and are involved in intracellular signaling. However, the impact of oral bacteria-induced ROS on the ecology of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated ROS production induced in primary human oral cells by F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis and its effect on the formation of their bacterial complexes and further host cell apoptosis. We found that in primary human gingival fibroblasts (GFs), two NADPH oxidase isoforms, NOX1 and NOX2, were activated in response to F. nucleatum infection but not P. gingivalis infection. Accordingly, increased NADPH oxidase activity and production of superoxide anion were observed in GFs after F. nucleatum infection, but not after P. gingivalis infection. Interestingly, in NOX1, NOX2, or NOX1/NOX2 knockdown cells, the number of P. gingivalis decreased when the cells were coinfected with F. nucleatum . A similar pattern of host cell apoptosis was observed. This implies that F. nucleatum contributes to attachment of P. gingivalis by triggering activation of NADPH oxidase in host cells, which may provide an environment more favorable to strict anaerobic bacteria and have a subsequent effect on apoptosis of host cells.

Keywords

Gingival fibroblast NADPH oxidase NOX1 NOX2

Communicated by Erko Stackebrandt.

pannumon's gear list: pannumon's gear list
Panasonic Lumix DMC-GF1 Panasonic Lumix DMC-GH2 Panasonic Lumix DMC-GM1 Panasonic Lumix DMC-G7 Panasonic Lumix G Vario HD 14-140mm F4-5.8 OIS +13 more
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spike29 Senior Member • Posts: 1,244
Re: Superzoom to m43 ILC
In reply to Gimli son of Gloin 7 months ago

It is unfair to compare the FZ with a recent Micro Four Thirds.

depends on how and what you compare those two.

soly IQ? yes, a compact or 1" will lose in pixelpeep/noise in image when light gets less. in bright /good light? don't think it matters no a day any more if pixels amount are roughly the same. bigger sensors do have better DR.

But if you add DoF to the test you need to stop down the m43 more to get the same focussed field. the light advantaged gets les.

take the sony rx10IV 24-600mm and buy all lenses needed to cover that range in WR lenses and a WR body, i think the sony sounds cheap suddenly. 😀

Reality is that the latest 1" inch sensors have same if not faster focusing capabilities, specially in AF-C RX100V and RX10IV.

yes i agree, before i choose the G80 i was eyeballing a lot to the new fz2000 and rx10III.

The bad lens reviews about quality (check) of the fz2000 drove me away towards the G80.

As a allround image capture device, the 1" bridge is a powerful competitor.

The newest sony rx10 is almost checking all boxes of a all in one.

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Evidently we look so much alike that your desire to make an incurable dent in my hat must be excused.

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knowledge is addictive, every time i get some i want more.....-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

spike29's gear list: spike29's gear list
Fujifilm FinePix F70EXR Panasonic Lumix DMC-FZ200 Panasonic G85 Panasonic Lumix G Vario 14-140mm F3.5-5.6 ASPH. / Power O.I.S Panasonic Leica 12-60mm F2.8-4.0 ASPH
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windmillgolfer Forum Pro • Posts: 14,844
Re: Superzoom to m43 ILC
In reply to • 7 months ago

I have several Panasonics, previously SLR and DSLR, including FZ330 (had the FZ200) and G80 with lenses from 7-14 through to 100-400mm. GAS is no longer an issue, I have cover for everything. In good light the FZ330 is very good but for long range, birds etc, the G80 with 100-400mm is a much, much better tool. As it should be at the price.

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